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In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient. They were independent thalassocratic city-states, https://philtattooranch.com/708/ though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire. All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power.

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Such paintings can be grouped into four main “styles” or periods and may contain the first examples of trompe-l’œil, pseudo-perspective, and pure landscape. The Baroque period produced several outstanding Italian architects in the 17th century, especially known for their churches. The most original work of all late Baroque and Rococo architecture is the Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigi, dating back to the 18th century. Luigi Vanvitelli began in 1752 the construction of the Royal Palace of Caserta.

  • The country is a great power, and it has a significant role in regional and global economic, military, cultural, and diplomatic affairs.
  • On average each year, London experiences 31 days above 25 °C (77.0 °F) and 4.2 days above 30.0 °C (86.0 °F).
  • As of 2015, most wealthy developed countries provide health care to all citizens, with a few exceptions such as the United States where lack of health insurance coverage may limit access.
  • Pace provides bus and paratransit service in over 200 surrounding suburbs with some extensions into the city as well.
  • In this large complex, the grandiose Baroque style interiors and gardens are opposed to a more sober building envelope.
  • Italy’s varied geological structure contributes to its high climate and habitat diversity.
  • Herman Boerhaave is sometimes referred to as a “father of physiology” due to his exemplary teaching in Leiden and textbook ‘Institutiones medicae’ .

However, in recent years Italy has experienced significant growth in birth rates. The total fertility rate has also climbed from an all-time low of 1.18 children per woman in 1995 to 1.41 in 2008, albeit still below the replacement rate of 2.1 and considerably below the high of 5.06 children born per woman in 1883. Factors of tourist interest in Italy are mainly culture, cuisine, history, fashion, architecture, art, religious sites and routes, naturalistic beauties, nightlife, underwater sites and spas.

Sister Cities

There was a mood of alarm and mistrust, and, while the crisis was developing, the presidents of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton developed a project to reform the sport and forestall possible radical changes forced by government upon the sport. Presidents Arthur Hadley of Yale, A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard, and Woodrow Wilson of Princeton worked to develop moderate reforms to reduce injuries. Their attempts, however, were reduced by rebellion against the rules committee and the formation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association. While the big three had attempted to operate independently of the majority, the changes pushed did reduce injuries. Early benefactor Elihu Yale’s responsibilities as president of Fort St. George included overseeing its slave trade, although he himself was never a slave trader or owner and imposed several restrictions on the trade during his tenure. Notably, there are no accounts of Yale ever visiting or influencing the university; Yale College was named after him only because of the size of his gift.

The Artist’s Way

Half of all Yale undergraduates are women, more than 39% are ethnic minority U.S. citizens (19% are underrepresented minorities), and 10.5% are international students. 55% attended public schools and 45% attended private, religious, or international schools, and 97% of students were in the top 10% of their high school class. Every year, Yale College also admits a small group of non-traditional students through the Eli Whitney Students Program. The first campus police force was founded at Yale in 1894, when the university contracted city police officers to exclusively cover the campus. Later hired by the university, the officers were originally brought in to quell unrest between students and city residents and curb destructive student behavior. In addition to the Yale Police Department, a variety of safety services are available including blue phones, a safety escort, and 24-hour shuttle service.

The islands of Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and Malta were added to Italy by Diocletian in 292 AD., coinciding with the whole Italian geographical region. The number of murders in Chicago peaked at 970 in 1974, when the city’s population was over 3 million people , and it reached 943 murders in 1992, . However, Chicago, like other major U.S. cities, experienced a significant reduction in violent crime rates through the 1990s, falling to 448 homicides in 2004, its lowest total since 1965 and only 15.65 murders per 100,000. Chicago’s homicide tally remained low during 2005 , 2006 , and but rose to 510 in 2008, breaking 500 for the first time since 2003. And in 2010 Chicago’s murder rate fell to 435 (16.14 per 100,000), a 5% decrease from 2009 and lowest levels since 1965.

London’s skyscrapers, such as 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower and One Canada Square, are mostly in the two financial districts, the City of London and Canary Wharf. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of St Paul’s Cathedral and other historic buildings. This protective policy, known as ‘St Paul’s Heights’, has been in operation by the City of London since 1937. Nevertheless, there are a number of tall skyscrapers in central London , including the 95-storey Shard London Bridge, the tallest building in the United Kingdom. Part of the varied architectural heritage are the 17th-century churches by Wren, neoclassical financial institutions such as the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early 20th century Old Bailey and the 1960s Barbican Estate.

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Other Yale alumni who have made serious bids for the presidency during this period include Amy Klobuchar , Tom Steyer , Ben Carson , Howard Dean , Gary Hart , Paul Tsongas , Pat Robertson and Jerry Brown . A decade into co-education, student assault and harassment by faculty became the impetus for the trailblazing lawsuit Alexander v. Yale. In the late 1970s, a group of students and one faculty member sued Yale for its failure to curtail campus sexual harassment by especially male faculty. The plaintiffs in the case were Olivarius, Ronni Alexander , Margery Reifler , Pamela Price , and Lisa E. Stone (works at Anti-Defamation League). While unsuccessful in the courts, the legal reasoning behind the case changed the landscape of sex discrimination law and resulted in the establishment of Yale’s Grievance Board and the Yale Women’s Center.

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Similarly, the decorative friezes on the buildings depict contemporary scenes, like a policemen chasing a robber and arresting a prostitute , or a student relaxing with a mug of beer and a cigarette. In fact, the buildings merely simulate Middle Ages architecture, for though they appear to be constructed of solid stone blocks in the authentic manner, most actually have steel framing as was commonly used in 1930. One exception is Harkness Tower, 216 feet tall, which was originally a free-standing stone structure. It was reinforced in 1964 to allow the installation of the Yale Memorial Carillon.